Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is done by passing some steps in IVF (test tube baby) treatment. It is expected that ovaries of the mother are stimulated, stimulated eggs are collected and they return to embryo phase after the eggs are fertilized. This process also covers the 12th or 13th day of IVF treatment. Once the embryos have completed their development (this period is three or five days), they are divided into 8 cells. Preimplantation diagnosis begins after this stage.
How is PGD application carried out?
Once preimplantation has reached to the genetic diagnosis stage, first, one or two cells are removed from the embryo. DNA samples of the received cells are collected or copied by polymerase chain reaction, namely, PCR. As a final step, molecular analysis of the DNA is made and it is understood whether there is a genetic problem in the embryo. If a problem about embryo or pregnancy is detected after the PGD process is performed, this embryo is not used in IVF treatment. After PGD process, the best quality and the healthiest embryos are selected among the embryos for which no genetic problems can be detected and they are easily used in embryo transfer.
PGD and IVF treatment (test tube baby)
IVF treatment has been continuing to develop since 1978 when it was discovered and the first IVF treatment was carried out. The advancement of medicine and the development of technology have enabled the development of opportunities and techniques used in IVF treatment. The practice of PGD is among contributions that these innovations bring to IVF treatment.
The most important aim of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in IVF treatment is to provide detection of genetic abnormalities in embryos. So, it becomes possible to detect abnormal embryos and the use of these embryos is also prevented in the treatment of in vitro fertilization. Because it is not easy for abnormal embryos to adhere to the mother's uterus. This situation causes the IVF treatment to fail. The PGD method is an important factor increasing the success in IVF treatment.
Advantages of PGD method
By means of PGD method in IVF treatment, when the cells are still in the embryo stage, it is possible to determine whether chromosomal deficiency is present or whether there are genetic problems in embryos. Thus, the problematic embryo will not be injected into the mother's uterus, and perhaps, occurrence of life-long negativenesses will be prevented before beginning. In addition, pregnancies resulting from embryonal genetic code impairment usually result in miscarriages. This situation spiritually both demoralizes and cause the people feel sad. Through PGD method, pregnancies that may result in miscarriages are aimed to be prevented to a great extent.
Who can benefit from the PGD method?
Couples are advised to benefit from PGD method for situations such as couples who has consanguineous marriages, recurrent miscarriages, successive recurrent IVF treatment failures, chromosomal disorders in the first babies of couples. The analysis can be done while the baby is still embryo and early detection of pregnancies that may result in miscarriages or genetic disorders in the embryo can be provided. Moreover, PGD method is applied to women over 40 years of age.